Ultimately, all parties have recognized the need to “prevent, minimize and treat loss and damage,” but in particular any mention of indemnification or liability is excluded.  The Convention also adopts the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage, an institution that will attempt to answer questions relating to the classification, management and sharing of responsibilities in the event of loss.  Under the Paris Agreement, each country must define, plan and report regularly on its contribution to the fight against global warming.  No mechanism obliges a country to set a specific emissions target before a given date, but each target should go beyond the targets set previously. The United States formally withdrew from the deal the day after the 2020 presidential election, although President-elect Joe Biden said America would join the deal after his inauguration.  The Paris Agreement is an agreement under the UNFCCC on climate change, which will address the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions from 2020 on. The agreement aims to address the global threat of climate change by maintaining a global temperature increase well below 2 degrees Celsius this century and continuing efforts to further limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.  Both the EU and its Member States are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. A strong preference was expressed for the EU and its 28 Member States to deposit their instruments of ratification simultaneously to ensure that neither the EU nor its Member States commit to obligations belonging exclusively to each other, and some feared that there would be disagreement on each Member State`s share of the EU-wide reduction target. Just like the British vote to leave the EU, the Paris Pact could be delayed.  However, on 4 October 2016, the European Parliament approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement and the EU deposited its instruments of ratification on 5 October 2016 with several EU Member States.  During the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) was established with the aim of negotiating a legal instrument for action on climate change from 2020.
The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.  The Paris Agreement has a bottom-up structure, unlike most international environmental treaties, which are “top-down” and are characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives that states must implement.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets commitment targets that have the force of res judicata, the Paris Agreement, focused on consensus-building, allows for voluntary and national targets.  Specific climate objectives are therefore more politically encouraged than legally linked. . . .