The Brexit Withdrawal Agreement officially entitled “Withdrawal Agreement of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community” is a treaty signed on 24 January 2020 between the European Union (EU), Euratom and the United Kingdom (UK), which sets out the conditions for the United Kingdom`s exit from the EU and Euratom. The text of the treaty was published on 17 October 2019 and is a renegotiated version of an agreement published six months earlier. The previous version of the Withdrawal Agreement was rejected three times by the House of Commons, leading Queen Elizabeth II to accept Theresa May`s resignation as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and appoint Boris Johnson as the new Prime Minister on 24 July 2019. On 23 January 2020, the UK Parliament approved the draft European Union (Withdrawal Agreement) Act 2020. Following the signing of the Agreement, the Government of the United Kingdom issued and deposited the instrument of ratification of Great Britain on 29 January 2020.   The agreement was ratified by the Council of the European Union on 30 January 2020, after consent of the European Parliament on 29 January 2020. The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the Union entered into force on 31 January 2020 at 11 p.m GMT, the date on which the Withdrawal Agreement entered into force in accordance with Article 185. Finland will be represented in the European Council by the Prime Minister and in the General Affairs Council by the Minister for European Affairs. In addition, an ad hoc group on Article 50, composed of experts from the Member States, has been set up to assist the Council in the withdrawal negotiations. The group met weekly in Brussels. The Withdrawal Agreement provided for an option to extend the transitional period in order to avoid a “no-deal” Brexit in the absence of an agreement between the EU and the UK by 31 December 2020.
Such an extension should have been requested until July 2020. After a statement by Prime Minister Boris Johnson that he would not use this option and that 11 months was enough to agree on a comprehensive agreement, the UK government added a provision in the 2020 act to prohibit a UK minister from applying for such an extension and no extension was requested. On 15Th Several members of the British government, including Dominic Raab, Secretary of State for Leaving the European Union, resigned on 18th November 2018, the day after the delivery of the agreement and the support of the Cabinet of the British Government.  On 31 January 2020 at 11 p.m. (midnight Central European Time), the United Kingdom left the European Union, 47 years after its first accession to the European Economic Community. We are now in a “transition period” as far as our relations with the EU are concerned. This period will continue until 31 December 2020, as provided for in the Withdrawal Agreement concluded between the UK and the EU in October 2019. Since January, Britain has been in a state of negotiations with other countries around the world. If the negotiations cannot be concluded successfully, there will be a “no-deal” Brexit. This finding gives an indication of the Withdrawal Agreement and the expiry of the transitional period.
The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the “Irish backstop”, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement outlining provisions to avoid a hard border in Ireland after the United Kingdom`s withdrawal from the European Union. The Protocol contained a safety net provision to deal with circumstances in which satisfactory alternative arrangements have yet to enter into force at the end of the transitional period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol which will be described as follows. Receipt of the deal in the House of Commons ranged from fresh to hostile and the vote was delayed by more than a month. . . .